Terms definitions



Phonics is the most widely used approach in the teaching of reading and spelling.[1]
-Requires students to know and match letters or letter patterns with sounds , learn rules of spelling , and use this information to decode(read) and encode(write) words.

Phonics Song:

Phonological awareness:

Phonological awareness is the awareness of all of the sounds of language. It is the ability to hear and distinguish sounds. This includes:[2]

  • Recognizing sounds

  • Adding sounds

  • Taking apart sounds

  • Moving sounds around




Invented spelling:

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Invented spelling:[5]

Balanced approach to reading:

Reading Comprehension Strategies : What Is a Balanced Approach to Reading?[6]

What Is a Balanced Approach to Reading?

, eHow Presenter
A balanced approach to reading should include phonemic awareness instruction, phonetics instruction, fluency instruction, vocabulary instruction and comprehension instruction. Learn about having the student and teacher read aloud with help from an English specialist and president of a theater group in this free video on reading.[7]

Read more: Video: What Is a Balanced Approach to Reading? | eHow.com http://www.ehow.com/video_4790931_balanced-approach-reading_.html#ixzz1p84rUnSx

Bottom-up approach to reading:

-Emphasized the ability to decode or put into sound what is seen in a text
-Focus on the knowledge on the target language more than the information on the readings.


Top-down approaches to teaching reading :


Differentiated instruction:

-Based on the premise that , since students differ significantly in their interests, learning styles, abilities and prior experiences, teaching strategies should vary accordingly.


Children learn to read without elder teaching in 13 month.

Amazing 17 month old baby reading.

[1] http://www.foniks.org/